Of the various models of communication that already exist, we’ll discuss three most important models, as well as the underlying approach will be discussed and how the communication is conceptualized in its development.
Linear Model of Communication
Communication model was proposed by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver in 1949 in the book The Mathematical of Communication. They describe communication as a linear process of being interested in radio and telephone technology and want to develop a model to explain how the information through various channels. The result is a linear conceptualization of communication. This approach consists of several key elements: source, message and receiver. Linear models assume that someone is sending or receiving. Of course this is a very narrow view of the participants in the communication process.
Interactional model developed by Wilbur Schramm in 1954 which emphasizes the process of two-way communication between the communicators. In other words, communication is two-way: from the sender and the receiver and from the receiver to the sender. This circular process indicates that communication always takes place. The participants are interactional model of communication by those who develop human potential through social interaction, specifically through taking the role of others. It should be noted that this model puts the source and receiver have equal footing. One element that is essential for the model interkasional feedback, or response to a message.
Transactional communication model developed by Barnlund in 1970. This model underscores the sending and receiving of messages which occur constantly in a communication episode. Communication is a process of cooperative transactional: the sender and receiver are equally responsible for the impact and effectiveness of the communication that occurs. Transactional models assume that when we are constantly sending and receiving messages, we deal both with verbal and nonverbal elements. In other words, participant communication (communicator) put through the process of negotiation of meaning.